A Rootstock is part of a plant, generally an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be originated. When plants are top worked, they might be grafted at a point many feet above the ground. In this case, everything below the graft, including as it may be an old tree’s trunk and branches, is the Rootstock. In grafting, the upper part of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant. In the growing process, a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another. The plant part grafted toward the Rootstock is usually called the scion.
A variety of Rootstocks may be used for a single species because different root stocks give different properties, such as fruit size and precocity. Root stocks also may be selected for character such as resistance to drought, root infections, and diseases. Grapevines for commercial planting are most often grafted onto root stocks to avoid damage by phylloxera. The RootStock may be different varieties from the scion, but according to rule it should be closely related.
Apple root-stocks are used for apple trees and it deciding factor of the size of the tree that is grafted on to the root. Dwarfing, semi-dwarf, semi-standard and standard are the size criteria for the different sizes of roots that will be grown, with standard being the largest and dwarf being the smallest. a lot of the world’s apple production is now using root stocks to improve ability, increase density and increase profit of fruit per/ acreage.
There are many reasons to prune trees, and it is a good idea to make tree maintenance a regular habit in order to keep them growing their best. The process of Pruning is given below:-
Cut a small notch in the place where you want to grow branches, it should be 2-3 feet away from the trunk, and about a quarter of the way through.
The best time to prune is in late winter, early spring, just before the tree begins to open its buds. Some trees, such as maple and dogwood, will bleed sap at this time of year.
While pruning can be done anytime, it is always good to avoid hot dry periods and extreme winter cold.
If you do prune trees after the leaves have opened, be sure to allow them to fully develop their leaves plus some additional time to recoup the energy they used.